Thursday, February 4, 2010

Instructional Design Theory

Reigeluth, C. M., & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Eds.). (2009). Instructional-design theories and models (Vol. 3). New York: Routledge.

Six major kinds of instructional design theory (p. 8-9)
  1. Instructional-event design theory: what the instruction should be like
  2. Instructional-analysis design theory: what the process of gathering information for making decisions about instruction should be like
  3. Instructional-planning design theory: what the process of creating the instructional plans should be like
  4. Instructional-building design theory: what the process of creating the instructional resources should be like
  5. Instructional-implementation design theory: what the process of preparing for implementation of the instruction should be like
  6. Instructional-evaluation design theory: what the process for evaluating the instruction should be like
Gibbons, A. S., & Rogers, P. C. (2009). The architecture of instructional theory. P. 305-326.

It's insightful that Gibbons and Rogers distinguish Design Theory from Domain Theory: "An enormous literature exists on design instrumentalities for instructional designers. However, the theoretic roots of current design practices are difficult to trace in that literature." (p. 311)

Design layering (p. 313)

i. Design of building
  1. Site - the geographic setting and the legally defined lot, having boundaries and context
  2. Structure - the foundation and load-bearing elements of the building
  3. Skin - the exterior surfaces
  4. Services - the communications wiring, electrical wiring, plumbing, sprinkler system, HVAC (heating, ventilating, air conditioning), and moving parts like elevators and escalators
  5. Space plan - the interior layout-where walls, ceilings, floors, and doors go
  6. Stuff - chairs, desks, phones, pictures, kitchen appliances, lamps, etc.: things that move around inside spaces (Brand, 1994)
ii. Design layering of instructional design (p. 315)
  1. Content layer: subject-matter elements (e.g., domain knowledge)
  2. Strategy layer: organization of space, participants, goals, patterns of interaction and experience (e.g., modeling, scaffolding, coaching, situated learning, intrinsic motivation)
  3. Message layer: language that communciates info to the learner (e.g., multimedia, combined graphics and text, animations, or video)
  4. Control layer: control structure for leaner to express to the source of learning experience (e.g., student responds to instruction or problems)
  5. Representation layer: media channels that visualize the message (e.g., use of videoconferencing in international distance education courses)
  6. Media-logic layer: the mechanism by which representations are caused to occur in their designed or computed sequence
  7. Data management layer: data collection, analysis, report and archiving
Root in Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

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