Thursday, September 3, 2009

Online learning 2: Pedagogical theories & instructional design

Pedagogical frameworks

1. Andragogic Model
  • let learners know why sth. is important to learn
  • assist learners to direct themselves through info
  • relate the topic to the learners' experiences
2. Objectivist Model (for short modules on specific concepts and skills)
  • the world is completely and correctly structured
  • intro-concept-example-practice-reflection (traditional textbook design)
3. Constructivist Model (for academically challenging longer modules and courses)
  • knowledge is contextual, meanings are rooted in the indexed by experience
  • problem-background-concept-analysis-solution (multidisciplinary, real-life problems)
4. Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956)
  • Knowledge: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
  • Comprehension: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, discuss, extend, etc.
  • Application: apply, demonstrate, complete, show, solve, examine, relate, change, classify, discover, etc.
  • Analysis: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, compare, select, explain, infer, etc.
  • Synthesis: combine integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite, etc.
  • Evaluation: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize, etc.
5. Problem-based learning (PBL)
  • a professional preparation strategy that uses multifaceted, cross-disciplinary problems as the starting point for learning
  • it draws on memory theory (activation of prior knowledge), problem solving theory (transfer concepts to new problems), and instance theory (pattern recognition)
Design and production of online content

1. Professional mode of production (e.g., for-profit online learning companies) - development team consists of SME (professor), advisory board, instructional designer - often takes 6 months
  • (1) Planning (time varies): faculty preparation, draft of a working curriculum, time line, budget, work plan
  • (2) Analysis and design (10 wks): curricular development, content analysis and initial design presentation
  • (3) Development (10 wks): product development, faculty input, alpha lockdown (each module), beta lockdown (entire course)
  • (4) Implementation (4 wks): implementation, evaluation, revisions and maintenance
2. Self-publication (web 2.0 is a catalyst?)

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