Monday, August 18, 2008

The Systematic Design of Instruction

The Dick & Carey systems approach model for designing instruction (Link)
  1. Identify instructional goal(s)
    • Performance analysis
    • Needs assessment
    • Job analysis
    • Clarifying instructional goals
    • Learners, context, and tools
    • Criteria for establishing instructional goals
  2. Conduct instructional analysis
    • Conducting a goal analysis
      • Verbal info
      • Intellectual skills
      • Psychomotor skills
      • Attitudes
      • Cognitive strategies
      • Goal analysis procedures
      • Analysis of substeps
    • Identifying subordinate skills and entry behaviors
      • Hierarchical approach
      • Procedural analysis
      • Cluster analysis
      • Subordinate skills analysis techniques for attitude goals
      • Combining instructional analysis techniques
      • Instructional analysis diagrams
      • Entry behaviors
      • The tentativeness of entry behaviors
  3. Analyze learners and contexts
    • Learner analysis
    • Collecting data for learner analysis
    • Analysis of performance context
    • Collecting data for performance context analysis
    • Analysis of learning context
    • Collecting data for learning context analysis
    • Public school contexts
    • Evaluation and revision of the instructional analysis
  4. Write performance objectives
    • Performance objective
    • Components of an objective
    • Derivation of behaviors
    • Derivation of conditions
    • Derivation of criteria
    • Process for writing objectives
    • Evaluation of objectives
    • The function of objectives
  5. Develop assessment instruments
    • Four types of criterion-referenced tests and their uses
    • Designing a test
    • Determining mastery levels
    • Writing test items
    • Setting mastery criteria
    • Types of items
    • Sequencing items
    • Writing directions
    • Evaluating tests and test items
    • Developing instruments to measure performances, products, and attitudes
    • Using portfolio assessments
    • Evaluating congruence in the design process
  6. Develop instructional strategy
    • Selection of delivery system
    • Content sequence and clustering
    • Learning components of instructional strategies
    • Learning components for learners of different maturity and ability levels
    • Learning components for various learning outcomes
    • Learning components for constructivist strategies
    • Student groupings
    • Selection of media and delivery systems
  7. Develop and select instructional materials
    • The delivery system and media selections
    • Components of an instructional package
    • Selecting existing instructional materials
    • The designer's role in material development and instructional delivery
    • Developing instructional materials for formative evaluation
  8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction
    • Designing formative evaluations
    • Role of subject-matter, learning, and learner specialists in formative evaluation
    • One-to-one evaluation with learners
    • Small group evaluation
    • Field trial
    • Formative evaluation in the performance context
    • Formative evaluation of selected materials
    • Formative evaluation of instructor-led instruction
    • Data collection for selected materials and instructor-led instruction
    • Concerns influencing formative evaluation
    • Problem solving during instructional design
  9. Revise instruction
    • Analyzing data from one-to-one trials
    • Analyzing data from small-group and field trials
    • Revision process
    • Revising selected materials and instructor-led instruction
  10. Design and conduct summative evaluation
    • Expert judgment phase of summative evaluation
    • Field trial phase of summative evaluation
    • Comparison of formative and summative evaluations
Dick, W., Cary, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005), The Systematic Design of Instruction (6th Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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