Saturday, January 26, 2008

Psychological effects in teaching

1. Strength/durability of memory
  • 7+/-2 effect (William Hamilton, M. H. Jacobs, George A. Miller-magic number 7)
  • Short-term memory is limited
  • Grouping is an effective way
2. Primacy effect & recency effect
  • Primacy is a cognitive bias that results from disproportionate salience of initial stimuli or observations. If, for example, a subject reads a sufficiently long list of words, he or she is more likely to remember words read toward the beginning than words read in the middle. (e.g., well begun is half done; first impression)
  • The recency effect is a cognitive bias that results from disproportionate salience of recent stimuli or observations. People tend to recall items that were at the end on a list rather than items that were in the middle on a list. For example, if a driver sees an equal total number of red cars as blue cars during a long journey, but there happens to be a glut of red cars at the end of the journey, he or she is likely to conclude that there were more red cars than blue cars throughout the drive. (e.g., 压轴戏;理无可恕,情有可原)
3. Forgetting Curve (Hermann Ebbinghaus) - 遗忘的发展规律是先快后慢 (review what you learned is important)

4. 超限效应 - 留点空白,不能无限度表扬或批评,information overload

5. 高原现象: 越往后进步越慢; 长跑中的“极点“。

6. 思维定势: 换种思维方式

7. 归因偏差 Attribution deficiency? -需换位思考

8. 沉锚效应 - 思维被第一信息左右

9. 连锁塑造- 通过小步骤反馈来达到学习目标:e.g., operant conditioning chamer (Skinner)

10. 詹森效应-心里素质影响临场发挥

11. 普雷马克原理 - 要想吃肉,先吃青菜 (用高频活动奖励低频活动)

12. 情景相似性 - 去年今日此门中,人面桃花相映红 (encoding specificity)。触景生情,睹物思人。

13. 头脑风暴效应- 引发兴趣,发散思维(不许评价,异想天开,重数量而非质量,见解无专利)

14. 大脑可塑性 - 玉不琢不成器,人不学不知义

15. 鸡尾酒会效应 - 听到你要听的。

16. 情绪判断优先 - 情令智昏

17. 厌恶试验 - little Albert's experiment (John B. Watson) (behaviorism: US, UR, CS, CR)

18. 德西效应 - 外加报酬抵消内感报酬。过度奖励或弄巧成拙。应该奖励内部动机为主。

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